In the topic of cancers, it is extremely difficult to identify an etiological factor that directly causes cancer. Although, as a result of conducted studies today, factors that directly have an affect on the etiology of some cancers have been proven, Renal Cell Carcinoma is not one of them. Today, about the epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma, just some clinical and occupational factors and also some substances that related to tumorigenesis have been identified.
such as, smoking, carcinogenic chemicals, organic solvents, viral infections
and radiation have been shown to be involved in the Renal Cell Carcinoma etiology.
At the same
time, some drugs can increase the risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma as well as
increase other neoplasms.
genetic factors are of great importance.
When it comes
to Renal Cell Carcinoma epidemiology, special issues such as hypertension,
chronic renal failure and dialysis should be carefully considered.
conditions such as diet and obesity may also play role in the epidemiology of Renal
Epidemiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma
Carcinoma is the third most common cell carcinoma among the urological
neoplasms, after the Prostate Cancer and Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the
Moreover, it has a ratio of 2% among all adult neoplasms.
ranking of all cancers according to their incidence, this malignancy is in the
tenth place in men and fourteenth place in women. Male and female ratio is 3/2.
and Pediatric Population
The peak incidence occurs in
the sixth decade, with 80% of the cases within the 40 to 69-years of age.
In the pediatric population, the most common renal tumor is Wilms Tumor. But also, Renal Cell Carcinoma represents between 2% and 6% of renal tumors in children, without any difference between sexes. Besides, the incidence of these two malignancies is almost equal in the second decade of life.
b. Place in
other urologic tumors
Carcinoma constitutes 85% to 90% of all renal parenchymal malignant tumors.
Furthermore, among all urological tumors, Renal Cell Carcinoma is the most mortal malignancy. Because the mortality rate in patients with this tumor reaches 40%, however, this rate is 20% in Prostate and Bladder cancer.
important to note that the incidence of incidental finding of Renal Cell Carcinoma
is 1.5% in autopsy cases.
many of the diagnoses of Renal Cell Carcinoma are sporadic, there is a familial
rate of 4%.
a. Incidence in America
30,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States of America, while
approximately 12,000 patients die each year because of this malignancy.
have an more incidence rate of 10% to 20%, but the cause is not fully
b. Incidence in Europe
European Union, the average number of newly diagnosed cases in 2006 was 63.300,
while 26.400 deaths were caused by Renal Cell Carcinoma. Moreover, estimated
survival rate is nearly 54% in males and 57% in females.
c. Incidence in the World
incidence of this tumor has increased since 1930. However, this increase was
especially between 1930 and 1980.
been nearly a 9-fold increase in males, and a 4-fold increase in females per
100.00 cases per year.
since 1980, there has not been an increase observed in both genitourinary
tumors and other types of malignancies. Besides, the number of deaths due to
renal cell carcinoma remains stable.